ECONOMIC IMPACT OF BAN ON BATTERY CAGES FOR POULTRY PRODUCTION IN INDIA
Status of Poultry Industry in India
India with a population of 1.35 billion people is highly focusing on “Development” i.e. Good Food, Better Health & Living conditions for everyone. With the increase in the incomes, people can now afford better nutrition and hence, since last two decades the demand for eggs and chicken is growing.
The recent data of the year 2017 states that the egg production in India is 78 billion and the broiler production is 4.2 million tonnes per annum. The growth rate of layer market is 6-7 percent per annum. and broiler market is 8-10 percent per annum. Approx. 75 percent of egg production is contributed by commercial poultry farms, remaining comes from household/backyard poultry.
Total poultry feed production of the country stands at 22 million tonnes. The Indian poultry sector is valued at INR 1.25 lakh cr or USD 15.58 bn.
In coming years, poultry production and consumption in India is predicted to grow due to various factors such as a shift in food habits, urbanization, increasing awareness of balanced nutrition etc. The broiler meat consumption pattern shows that around 62 percent of meat is consumed in major 10 cities and rest of the consumption comes from other cities with a smaller percentage from villages.
Growth opportunities and challenges—–India is leading with 10 percent in the poultry growth followed by Brazil with 7 percent, the USA with 2.1 percent and China with 2 percent.Recommendation of National Institute of Nutrition suggests per capita consumption should be 180 eggs and 11 kg meat while actual consumption is 69 eggs and 3.9 kg chicken meat.There are many challenges like transportation, waste management, use of green energy,
disease diagnosis etc. that might affect the further growth of the sector. Land scarcity is another major issue in India while some Animal Welfare Organizations are proposing a ban on cage rearing, Indian poultry farmer finds it difficult to rear the birds in open range units.
Food Processing in India————
Various industry reports suggest the market size of Indian food industry is expected to cross USD 540 billion in 2020 from USD 193 billion in 2016, the sector is growing at 12 percent per annum.
The government states that the farm to kitchen chain is going to change in India, like elsewhere, with increased agricultural production, better storage facilities, more food processing and changing consumer food preferences. At present only approx. 10 percent of the agricultural produce is processed in the country which presents the huge market potential of India. Government schemes like FDI (foreign direct investment) allowance in food processing sector, cold chain etc. would support the further development of the processing sector hence Poultry processing sector.
Under the policy initiatives of the Indian government towards doubling the income of farmers by 2022, poultry sector is going to be a major contributor. As it is most organized of all agricultural sectors in India, with increasing demand for egg and chicken in the country, it will further evolve into a vibrant and modern industry.
Poultry Industry in India—
- The Poultry Business in India is a very old practice and this food industry is one of the important contributors to the economy of rural and semi-urban India. India ranks seventeenth in the world poultry production index.
- Further, India is the 3rd largest producer of eggs and 6th largest producer of poultry meat amongst all the countries.
- Indian Poultry Industry is 5,000 years old, since last 4 decades it began to witness remarkable growth from backyard to poultry industry.
- The organized sector of poultry industry is contributing nearly 70% of the total output and the rest 30% in the unorganized sector.
- The broiler industry is well dominated in southern states in our country with nearly 60-70% total output coming from these states.
- The layer industry once again is represented more in southern states especially, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu and Maharashtra producing nearly 70% of the country’s egg production.
- India’s 75% of egg production consumed by the 25% population living in urban, semi-urban areas. Presently more than 900 hatcheries are operating in the country.
- India has emerged as the only country in the developing world a self-reliant, technology driven industry, with capability to produce every essential input for successful poultry farming including indigenous genetic resource and breeding, world class poultry vaccines and medicines, specific pathogen free eggs (SPF), farms and hatchery automation systems, pelleted feed, egg processing, poultry processing, nationwide network of disease diagnostic laboratories and facilities for entrepreneurial development and training in both private and public sectors
*We are producing world class eggs and poultry produce by adopting world best practices and technology. Today we are getting even 330 eggs per bird as par USA production, this indicates that the poultry birds are provided conducive and comfort environment resulting best production.
Benefits of poultry farming——–
The poultry farming is very versatile agro-business and it provides some benefits. They are
- It was source of high quality human food. Egg is not only supports in nutritive value, nut also it is very easily digested and cab be served indifferent ways. Of this also used in many ways like binders and levering agents in banking and furnishes richness in ice-cream, sauces, curlards and candues
- Poultry farming is highly adaptable under various conditions. It fits well in mixed farming system to provide continuous income to the farmers during their lean periods and also helps to engage their family labor profitable throughout the year.
It provides employment avenues. There are many diversified types of business allied poultry farming like egg production, broiler production. All these business can develop as rural industries, which will have many avenues of employment of rural side particularly among educated unemployed and under-employed persons.
- Poultry waste is an excellent source of organic manure, which can utilized for growing field crops. It estimated that of the poultry manure utilized properly, it could produce more food grains them the birds consume as feed.
- It serves as source of raw materials for industrial products. Eggs have many industrial uses in preparation of vaccines, varnished printers land, soap, shampoo etc. Eggshells are using as minerals in animal feed. Endocrine glands of birds are using for preparation of hormones and any other biological preparations.
But sorry to say that in spite of world class infrastructure and poultry farming practices our Poultry farmers will have to soon end battery cage farming and go for cage free egg farming as the Law Commission of India has asked the Centre to notify the rules framed in 2012 to prohibit battery cage farming of egg laying hens.
The Law Commission which reviewed laws on the transport and rearing of poultry birds as per the request of the Ministry of Law and Justice informed the ministry that though rules were framed in 2012 for protection of egg laying hens and broiler chickens they have not been notified.
The panel felt that although the Animal Welfare Board of India had clarified in 2012 that confining hens in battery cages violates the provisions of Section 11(1)(e) of the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals Act, 1960, most poultry farmers are allowing battery cages.
The law panel pointed out that hens used for the production of eggs are reared in small wire cages called battery cages, a name given due to the arrangement of cages placed side by side. The battery cages are so small that the birds are unable to stand up or spread wings without touching the sides of the cage or other hens or circle without impediment.
The panel pointed out that the floor space available to each hen was approximately 623.7 cm2, that is almost the area of a sheet of A4 paper and a typical egg farm in the our country contains thousands of cages with thousands of birds, stacked many tiers high.
The Law Commission noted that this method of rearing hens leads to sore feet, abrasions, broken bones and other injuries to the birds.
It also increases the risk of the birds contracting contagious diseases necessitating the administration of drugs.
The commission felt that the implications of caging broilers raise several concerns, and therefore broiler battery cages should be replaced with cage-free rearing to improve stocking density, feed, and hygiene.
The panel asked the Center to include stringent punishments in 1960 Act as existing provisions prescribed only fines.
Legal circles expect the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (Egg Laying Hens) Rules, 2017 and the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (Broiler Chicken) Rules, 2017 would be notified soon by the Center.
Once these rules come into force nobody can engage in poultry farming without registering with the animal husbandry department of the state.
The poultries will be allowed to operate only after certification by the animal husbandry department that the farm is cage-free.
This means there will be collapse of the layer poultry sector in India and more than 6 million people who are engaged in this profession will loose their job , become unemployed , there will be shortage of eggs in the market wich will result high pricing of egg rate and chances of MNCs to inter in the Indian market to sell their poultry produce after damaging our own industry. Apart from this there will be a great challenge for India to fight with hunger and mal nutrition. Industrial poultry production/caged production generates more employment than higher welfare production
Eggs are a high quality (complete) protein. Eggs must be affordable (cages are required to keep them affordable).Eggs must be affordable (cages are required to keep them affordable)
There is a need to continue increasing egg production efficiency and production. Increased production minimizes malnutrition
Proportion of the population that is malnourished in India is the highest in the world (40%). More than 1/3 of the world’s malnourished children live in India.
The present availability of eggs is still far below the Indian Council of Medical Research recommendations of 180 eggs per capita per annum.
If Indian Govt enforce legislation then there will be up to a 90% shortage in supply. This shortfall can’t be replaced by imports from other country. As a result prices would rise and consumption fall as consumers move to alternative protein sources.
Lower socio economic groups in India are generally less likely to be concerned about animal welfare and more likely to be concerned about food security. The ban on battery cage system for layer poultry farming in India will certainly jeopardise national food security.
Economic effects ——-
It is concluded that non‐cage systems incur costs of production that are at least 600 percent higher than conventional cages due to:
- Higher feed costs (due to more feed consumption per bird and fewer eggs per bird)
- Higher mortality
- Higher direct housing costs (because there are fewer birds per flock and fewer marketable eggs over the life of the hen entering the flock)
- Higher labor costs (due to fewer birds per flock, i.e. a higher unit cost)
*Increased threat of imported egg products from outside India As the majority of food manufacturers buy raw materials purely on price, they may look to import costly products from outside India
*Increased production costs
*Higher spread of diseases
*Weaker bio security and
*10 times more space requirements as compared to battery cages
*FCR and production will be very poor.
*Production will slashed down drastically making it uneconomical .
* Quantity of production will be drastically decreased leading to 6 times egg cost from present rate.
*Egg will become out of reach to the poor people n will be a dish to reach people.
Even WTO rules do not allow members to restrict trade in products based solely on the method of production (e.g. on animal welfare grounds) .Developing countries in particular fear that animal welfare production standards will be used as an excuse for protectionism. The above demonstrates the difficulties producers face when forced to implement higher welfare standards over other countries.
So this is the high time for the people/ organizations engaged in the poultry farming sector in India must come together and put the real problem before the Govt so that this conspiracy fabricated by foreign funded NGOs could be avoided. These NGOs are same as HUMAN RIGHT organizations who come in support of anti nationals and defame our security forces. So ,our honorable courts should take care of these people before giving verdicts .
More over the aim of our PM to do the double the farmer’s income by 2022 could only be possible through the practice of
commercial poultry farming must not be banned the battery cages only on the behest of NGO’s propaganda.
Yes its a matter of Discussion , must be discussed and to be end with a win win situation for all Indian Poultry farmers and the farmers who are indirectly depend on Poultry farmers and never forgot to millions of livelihood , who are dependent on Poultry farmers directly on Indirectly.
Its my personal views and for the welfare of poultry industry and mainly the above words are for the better India and Well Employed Indian.