Poultry Feed cost represents an expense of 70-85% of broiler production cost.
Formulating feed ideally requires depth knowledge and many trails based on many parameters such as the energy level to be maintained in the diet, balancing the amino acid profile and electrolytes of feed ,climate,Breed and availability of Raw material in local area.
Environmental challenges and history of disease outbreaks in last flocks, it is even more challenging to extract the total genetic capability of the birds.
The Prestarter or starter feed having more protein must be given to develop the complete body frame like villai length, Strong Bone and Best nutrition with immunomodulator rather than developing body mass.
Raw materials are purchased based on price, availability and nutritive value. Nutritive value of raw materials varies from time-to-time, source-to-source and batch-to- batch as per to make competitive and best feed.
Before purchase of raw material it needs to be analysed for quality parameters after collecting a representative sample. For example
If using Fish / Fish meal take care of the following parameters.
·Moisture (max.): 10.0%
·Sand and silica less than : 5.0% ,Salt less than: 3.0% , Urea level must be Nil ,Bacterial load must be checked before using it. its Example Each Product you are using as per price and other parameters must have a quality check.
Even the Grain size is also important. Big size can lead bird to consume/waste extra energy to digest big particles, resulting high feed intake.
In order to arrive at an ideal amino acid profile, the other critical amino acids need to be balanced with reference to lysine (Table 3) after maintaining the energy and digestible lysine ratio.
Never Forget Electrolyte balancing
Electrolyte balance is represented by Na+K-Cl balance in the poultry Feed to help the Poultry birds from utilizing energy in attempting to do the same in metabolizing the feed.
Electrolyte balance (Na+K-Cl) of poultry feed should be maintained between 200 to 250 mEq per kg of feed.
·Chelated trace minerals usage is advisable for better result than simple Trace Minerals.
· Inclusion of enzymes is preferable especially in Prestarter and starter Poultry Feed.
· Addition of Phytase with double dose in the poultry feed formula is useful to generate more energy.
Crude Oils are preferred in poultry over refined oils
·Vegetable source is preferred over animal source . But can be used looking rates and quality.
·An Antioxidant must be used for the oil source to avoid rancidity.
Palm oil can provide 8300 Kcal/kg and Rice Bran Oil 8500 Kcal/kg but Sunflower oil and Soya bean oil can provide 8800 Kcal energy /kg than Tallow ( 7200-8000 Kcal )and Pig Fat ( 7100-8000 Kcal/kg ) . So take care of This Factor and compare rates and quality.
. Calcium requirement of birds
Next to energy, birds adjust their feed intake based on calcium requirement. In other words, birds will eat more feed for want of calcium-a phenomenon also referred to as calcium hunger. That’s not mean poultry feed contain less calcium. But a extremely less marginal level can increase weight gain because of higher feed intake. Also Note- Excess calcium will bind to phosphorus (2 molecules of calcium will bind to one molecule of phosphorus) and make phosphorus unavailable to birds.
So Marble powder DCP, Meat and bone meal etc must be used with proper calculation in the feed. ( Not excess )
Awla dry powder ( Phyllantus emblica ) 1 kg/Ton of Feed can be used and Dry Haldi Powder ( (Curcuma longa) ) 300 gram/ton of Feed
Summer management In Poultry Feed.
The increase in energy is best achieved by adding fat (oil) that stimulates feed intake and further improves the palatability of feed. Fat also reduces the rate of passage within the digestive system resulting less viscosity and better results.
·Minimizing the excess of amino acids improves feed intake
In Extreme winter A diet with very little lower protein levels with limiting amino acids will help in reducing stress to the kidney and also lowering of ammonia levels in poultry houses at time of Peak winter in early stage of Broiler life.
·Ammonium chloride supplementation through feed improves weight gain.
·Inclusion of potassium .5 kg / chloride 0.5 kg / MT feed in prestarter and starter diets is also useful
·Feed electrolyte balance should be maintained more than 250 mEq especially in the summer. ·Sodium bicarbonate addition in diet is beneficial
·Usage of Vitamin C (coated) at a minimum dose of 100g / MT of feed is advisable for better results.
Micro nutrient are also important never ignore it.
To maximize the performance rather than Antibiotic growth promoters are best tools to combat disease challenges and high immunity. An ideal combination of micro ingredients also helps to combat stres.
Selenium,biotin,chromium and other nutrients must be used like other minerals.